Absolute phrases, often called nominative absolutes, embody a fusion of a noun or pronoun with a participial phrase. Distinguished from typical phrases, absolute phrases possess the unique ability to modify an entire sentence, providing a nuanced and impactful layer to language. This article will explore the intricacies of absolute phrases, elucidated by illustrative examples.

What is an Absolute Phrase?

An absolute phrase, also known as a nominative absolute, typically consists of a noun or pronoun accompanied by a participial phrase. Unlike a participial phrase, it serves to modify the entire sentence rather than a singular noun. [1] It functions as a noun phrase, always incorporating a noun or pronoun. Additionally, it frequently includes a participle, a present participle being a verb form ending in -ing, and a past participle often concluding with -ed.

Notably, an absolute phrase cannot function independently as a sentence due to the incomplete nature of the participle, lacking the necessary linking verb. A comma or dash invariably sets apart an absolute phrase to distinguish itself within a sentence. [2]

How to Identify an Absolute Phrase?

Examine the following sentence: Before heading to the gym, Jenny carefully placed her engagement ring in the jewelry box.

  1. Pinpoint the independent clause. This clause is a complete thought capable of standing alone, unaffected by the absolute phrase.

    The independent clause: Jenny carefully placed her engagement ring in the jewelry box.

  2. Using the comma as a reference, identify the phrase preceding or following it that modifies the independent clause. (Hint: Search for a noun or pronoun followed by a participle).

The absolute phrase: Before heading to the gym. [2]

An absolute construction allows us to transition from describing an entire entity to focusing on a specific aspect or element. Notably, in traditional grammar, absolutes, also known as nominative absolutes, are often more narrowly defined as “noun phrases… combined with participles.” It’s a term borrowed from Latin grammar, though modern linguists seldom employ it. [3]

Components of an Absolute Phrase

Absolute phrases do not connect to a sentence using a conjunction; a simple comma suffices. Typically, these phrases comprise a noun and a modifier. An essential characteristic of absolute phrases is the absence of a finite verb, a verb with a subject. Including such a verb would transform the phrase into a sentence, eliminating its status as an absolute phrase.

For instance, introducing the verb “were” to this phrase results in: “We finished our first yoga class, and our souls were replenished.” This addition of a verb turns the entire scenario into a run-on sentence.

Be attentive to absolute phrases when a sentence includes a comma. While commas may indicate a clause, you can identify an absolute phrase when they separate a noun and a modifier to provide additional depth. [4]

Types of Absolute Phrases

There exist two types of absolute phrases. The first elucidates a “cause for” or a “condition of” something.

For example: Feeling her heart sadder than ever, Alexis decided to dull the pain.

The second type of absolute phrase imparts detail or narrows the readers’ focus.

For example: Alexis walked down the path to the chapel, completely unaware he was there.

Absolute phrases enable the infusion of exquisite imagery into sentences. Regardless of the type you choose to incorporate, ensure it forms a robust connection with the rest of the sentence. Avoid using an absolute phrase solely for its aesthetic appeal.

For instance, it wouldn’t be suitable to write: “Alexis walked down the path to the chapel, with blackbirds overhead.” Unless those birds hold deeper significance to her mood or journey to the chapel, it’s crucial to exercise discretion when employing such phrases.

Ensure your absolute phrase seamlessly integrates with the sentence, providing enhanced depth. Always remember it should either elaborate on the sentence (by elucidating a cause or a condition) or direct the readers’ attention toward additional detail. [5]

Examples of Absolute Phrases

Sometimes, the optimal way to grasp the nuances of the English language is to witness them in practice. Let’s delve into some absolute phrase examples.

His affection more potent than ever, Anton engaged her in one final dance. Lacey embarked on the train, leaving her past behind. Anton and Lacey encountered each other, oblivious to their burgeoning love. They completed their inaugural meal together, content tummies and fulfilled hearts. Enchanted by her magic, Anton succumbed to love. Although she had long departed, her fragrance lingered in the air. The night air enshrouded in fog; she dissipated like a specter. Her eyes welling up, she bid him farewell. His arms encircled her, and he pressed his cheek to hers. They lingered in the embrace, their hearts pulsating as one.

A well-crafted absolute sentence possesses the potential to transform the ambiance of any written piece. In the instances above, they portrayed Anton’s love and revealed Lacey’s yearning. As you advance in your mastery of English, relish the opportunity to enrich your writing with the infinite possibilities presented by absolute phrases.

Placement of Absolute Phrases

Absolute phrases can find their place at a sentence’s beginning, middle, or end. While they typically grace the opening to set a specific tone and paint a vivid picture of an event, they are versatile enough for all three positions.

Consider the examples:

  • With a gun in his hands, the thief asked me to give him everything I had.

  • The thief asked me to give him everything I had, a gun in his hands.

  • The thief, with a gun in his hands, asked me to give him everything I had.

Transforming Absolute Phrases into Full Sentences

An absolute phrase yearns for completeness—a finite verb is the key.

Finite verb: A verb complete with a subject and grounded in time.

Sentences featuring absolute phrases:

  • He hit the last ball for a six, everyone leaping in the air with happiness.

  • Her brother returning home after a long time, she decided to arrange a welcome party for him.

We simply infuse each with a finite verb to elevate these absolute phrases into complete sentences.

  • He hit the last ball for a six. Everyone was leaping in the air with happiness.

  • Her brother was returning home after a long time. She decided to arrange a welcome party for him.

If we aim to integrate these into the main clause, a transformation into subordinate clauses is in order—using a subordinating conjunction at the beginning or adapting the main clause into a subordinate clause.

Turning Absolute Phrases into Subordinate Clauses

The metamorphosis of absolute phrases into subordinate clauses unfolds in two steps:

Employ a finite verb. Introduce a subordinating conjunction at the outset. Tailor the absolute phrase into a subordinate or main clause, depending on the sentence’s demands.

Example: When he hit the last ball for a six, everyone was leaping in the air with happiness.

Here, we transfigured the main clause into a subordinate clause using the subordinating conjunction “when.”

Example: Because her brother was returning home after a long time, she decided to arrange a welcome party for him.

In this instance, we converted the absolute phrase into a subordinate clause, incorporating a finite verb (“was”) and the subordinating conjunction “because.” [5]


In conclusion, understanding absolute phrases adds a layer of nuance and sophistication to your writing. Whether you place them at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, these structures can shape tone, emphasize details, and create vivid imagery. As we’ve explored the two types of absolute phrases—those explaining a cause or condition and those adding detail or focus—remember that their seamless integration into sentences requires a vigilant eye for connection and relevance.

By mastering the art of absolute phrases, you unlock a versatile tool that enriches your writing, providing depth and breadth to your narrative. Embrace their infinite possibilities, and let your words resonate with newfound expression and eloquence.


  1. https://www.englishgrammar101.com/module-9/verbals-and-phrases/lesson-10/absolute-phrases

  2. https://study.com/skill/learn/how-to-identify-absolute-phrases-explanation.html#:~:text=An%20absolute%20phrase%20is%20a,phrase%20often%20contains%20a%20participle.

  3. https://www.thoughtco.com/absolute-phrase-grammar-1689049

  4. https://www.yourdictionary.com/articles/absolute-phrase

  5. https://www.englishwithashish.com/absolute-phrases/